'Introduction to EU anti-discrimination law", e-learning course (European Commission)
This e-learning course provides an introduction to the key concepts of EU anti-discrimination law, developments in this area and relevant case‑law. It comprises video presentations, examples from actual cases and quizzes, and forms part of the series of seminars commissioned by the Commission and presented below. Interested legal practitioners may follow the course here.
Seminars on EU anti-discrimination legislation (European Commission)
These seminars relate to the two European anti-discrimination directives adopted under Article 19 TFEU (ex. article 13 TEC). Directive 2000/43/EC prohibits all forms of discrimination on the basis of race or ethnic origin in a number of areas. Directive 2000/78/EC prohibits all forms of discrimination in employment and occupation on the basis of religious beliefs, disability, age or sexual orientation. The background documentation and the speakers' contributions to the seminars commissioned by the Commission are available here.
Handbook on European non-discrimination law (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights – FRA and European Court of Human Rights – ECHR)
The handbook on European non-discrimination law, published jointly by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), sets out the jurisprudence of the ECHR and the Court of Justice of the European Union. It elaborates on the context and background of European law on non‑discrimination (including United Nations treaties on human rights) and describes the various categories of discrimination and the possible legal defences, the applicability of European law on non‑discrimination (in particular explaining which groups of persons are protected) and the criteria for protection, such as gender, disability, age, race or nationality. The handbook is available here in various languages.
Handbooks on various concepts relating to non-discrimination (European Commission)
Legal practitioners wishing to improve their knowledge and understanding of the law on non‑discrimination can find further information and analysis in several handbooks, which are all available in English. The handbooks have been produced especially for the European Commission and cover the following concepts:
- How to present a discrimination claim,
- Minority protection and the prohibition of discrimination,
- Migration and discrimination,
- Disability discrimination law in employment and occupation,
- Positive action to tackle discrimination,
- Discrimination in employment and occupation on grounds of religious belief ,
- Conflicts between the right to equality and other fundamental rights
- Discrimination in employment and occupation on grounds of age.
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